Several Anomalies & Outliers paragraphs rotate in printed Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) reports. These revolving anecdotes, vignettes
or narratives provide information and insights that are believed to be helpful in understanding the Probation Referral Outcome (PRO). In response
to users' requests all Anomalies & Outliers paragraphs are presented on this webpage for your review.
The Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) does not interpret, judge, or state opinions about treatment program
effectiveness. It, simply, reports positive and negative change. The intent is to, objectively, report pretest/posttest change.
When comparing pretest/posttest scores, note, when
the pretest score is at or below the 69th percentile (non-problematic range).
Since a pretest problem did not exist, posttest scale comparison would, likely, show
Treatment outcome, or effectiveness, is influenced by both, the
treatment program and probationer-related factors, like commitment, motivation,
cooperation, and goals. Expecting all probationers to want
positive change may be unrealistic, especially, when treatment is court ordered,
or probation officer mandated.
Non-treatment could result in no change or, even, negative change. When the PRO is not included in
treatment intake (pretest), there is no baseline comparison for posttest scale scores. Problems and
disorders, not included in the treatment plan, will likely go untreated, which emphasizes the importance
of including the PRO in intake screening.
The Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) is an automated, computerized, assessment
instrument designed for clinical assessment at intake (pre-treatment) and, again,
at the completion of treatment. It enables comparison of probationer status, prior
to, during, and upon treatment completion. The Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) can be
re-administered to the same probationer, at important, decision making points in the
In high volume settings, it is often advantageous to "group test," with paper-pencil materials.
Indeed, most PRO users utilize paper-pencil tests.
PRO test booklets and answer sheets can be downloaded at www.online-testing.com and photocopied.
PRO tests can, then, be scored over the internet, with reports printed within 2� minutes.
When Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) scales, or more specifically, the
problems and disorders they represent, are not mentioned in the
probationer's referral or treatment plan, it, is, likely, they won't be treated. To
avoid this oversight, we recommend that the Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) "pretest report"
be reviewed during program intake screening. Not being treated could help
explain "no change" or, even, some, negative outcome results.
Although posttest scale scores are discussed, in terms of their
comparison to analogous pretest scores, they also represent the probationer's
current or present problem status, or intensity. Elevated, (70th percentile and
higher) scale scores may warrant consideration of continued or alternative
It is important that the Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) be included in
treatment intake screening. Intake administration of the PRO is called the pretest,
and this serves as the baseline against which posttest scale scores are
compared. It is important to include the PRO in treatment intake
A 90th percentile or higher Truthfulness Scale score can occur
in a pretest or posttest. In either case, the PRO "Comparison
Report" is negated, nullified, or rendered null and void, because an invalid
(inaccurate) test cannot be used in a meaningful, baseline comparison.
In a small percentage of cases, treatment or counseling can
sensitize probationers to full disclosure, or "baring their souls." Defense mechanisms
(e.g., abreaction, catharsis, etc.) may be involved in extreme self-disclosure.
This phenomenon, although very rare or uncommon, could result in some posttest scale scores being higher, after
When can the Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) be re-administered? The Probation Referral Outcome (PRO)
should be re-administered prior to treatment program, alteration, or change.
Traditionally, it is administered again, prior to program completion. Some
treatment programs utilize 6 or 12 month re-administration review. Others
administer the Probation Referral Outcome (PRO) prior to important, treatment program changes.
Risk range classification is straightforward: Low risk (0 to 39th percentile),
medium (40 to 69th percentile), problem (70 to 89th percentile), and severe
problem (90 to 100th percentile). Yet, evaluator experience and judgment are
needed to interpret borderline scores, co-occurring disorder effects, and scale
Report terminology varies. Scale risk is equated to treatment
intensity, Medium risk may be paraphrased as average risk, scale graphs are
referred to as profiles, and severe risk is described as maximum (or max) risk.
Other synonyms include: answer - response, validity - accuracy, item - question,